This collection contains samples collected during periodic soil sampling and frozen at ultra-low temperatures in order to provide material for microbial sequencing or other microbial analyses (NEON sample classes: sls_soilCoreCollection_in.geneticArchiveSample1ID, sls_soilCoreCollection_in.geneticArchiveSample2ID, sls_soilCoreCollection_in.geneticArchiveSample3ID, sls_soilCoreCollection_in.geneticArchiveSample4ID, sls_soilCoreCollection_in.geneticArchiveSample5ID). Archive samples are collected during each soil sampling bout and are promptly frozen. Three unique locations are sampled per plot, with ten plots per site. Bouts occur three times per year in order to capture the prevailing conditions at the site during different seasons, except in Alaska where there only 1 bout is possible. Soil sampling is conducted to a maximum depth of 30 ± 1 cm, and when organic (O) and mineral (M) horizons are present within a single profile, they are separated prior to analysis and archiving. However, other sub-horizons are not separated. During the majority of bouts, only the top horizon (O if present, else M) is collected and archived. Soils are homogenized and non-soil material is removed by hand in the field, then subsamples are immediately frozen on dry ice. They are maintained in ultra-low temperature freezers until shipment to the Biorepository. See links below for NEON data products that provide physical, chemical, and biological measurements for these same soils (soil pH and moisture are always measured; chemical properties as well as microbial community composition and biomass are determined only for a subset of collection bouts). In addition, a more detailed characterization of the dominant soil types at each site, including taxonomy, texture, bulk density, and geochemical properties, occurred during the construction period of NEON through two projects. These data are available in NEON data products Soil physical and chemical properties, distributed initial characterization (DP1.10047.001) and Soil physical and chemical properties, Megapit (DP1.00096.001).