Plants 30-80(-100) cm. Stems with 8-20(-25) leaves or leafy bracts proximal to heads. Leaves: basal and proximal cauline elliptic- to oblanceolate-spatulate, mostly 100-280 × 16-40(-45) mm, glabrous (weakly, if at all, gland-dotted). Heads usually 19-30. Florets 19-33. Flowering Aug-Sep(-Oct). Rock ledges, shale banks and barrens, limestone and sandstone outcrops, road banks, flood plains, dry woods; 600-1600 m; Md., N.C., Pa., Tenn., Va., W.Va. Variety scariosa is an Appalachian entity that might justifiably be treated as distinct from vars. novae-anglieae and nieuwlandii at species level, as done by Shinners. It has shorter stems and smaller heads than vars. nieuwlandii and novaeangliae, and the transition in shape and size from basal to cauline leaves is more abrupt.