Shrub to 3 m, the younger parts usually finely hairy; pith brown; stipules minute or none; lfls 5-7, lance-ovate to narrowly oblong, acuminate, finely toothed, usually soft-hairy beneath; infl pyramidal or convex, panicle-like, with an evident main axis extending beyond the usually paired lowermost branches; fls white, 3-4 mm wide; fr red (seldom yellow or white), 5 mm; 2n=36 + 0-2 B. Rich woods; circumboreal, in Amer. from Nf. to B.C., s. in our range to Pa., Ind., Ill., and in the mts. to N.C. May, June. The N. American ssp. pubens (Michx.) House is represented in our range by var. pubens (Michx.) Koehne. (S. pubens) Other vars. are cordilleran.
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
Common Name: red elderberry Duration: Perennial Nativity: Native Lifeform: Tree Wetland Status: FACU General: Large deciduous shrub to small tree, 1-4 m tall, with glabrous stems and pithy twigs; foilage with a strong, distinctive odor. Leaves: Opposite, pinnately compound, usually with 5-7 leaflets on short petioles, elliptic to oblong, acute to acuminate, serrate, with asymmetrical bases, 5-14 cm long, 2-8 cm wide; green and glabrous to sparsely glandular above, lighter green and glabrous to hirsute below; stipules deciduous as pair of thickened glandular appendages. Flowers: Many flowered conical or pyramidal shaped compound cyme; small flowers with inconspicuous calyx, corolla cream or yellow colored, 5-lobed, lobes longer than tube. Fruits: Large cluster of small, bright red globose berries 4-6 mm. Ecology: Found in moist soils in riparian areas from 6,000-10,000 ft (1829-3048 m); flowers May-July. Notes: Can be identified by the pinnately compound leaves and its pyramidal cyme, its red berries, and stipules. Usually found in higher elevations along riparian or in more moisty areas. There is a serious question as to whether or not this species is present at any parks in the region, a collection is essential. Ethnobotany: Used to stimulate sweating in dry fever, flowers and dried berries are used as a diuretic, as an aid for rheumatism and arthritis; notable that the berries are thought to be mildly toxic. Etymology: Sambucus comes from the Greek Sambuke, referring to an ancient instrument, however there seems to be some debate as to the construction and use of this instrument; while racemosa means having flowers in racemes. Synonyms: None Editor: SBuckley, 2010