This collection contains ear punch samples collected from small mammals during small mammal sampling (NEON sample class: mam_pertrapnight_in.earSampleID). Small mammal sampling is based on the lunar calendar, with timing of sampling constrained to occur within 10 days before or after the new moon. Typically, core sites are sampled 6 times per year, and relocatable sites 4 times per year. Small mammals are sampled using box traps (models LFA, XLK, H.B. Sherman Traps, Inc., Tallahassee, FL, USA) and, at sites in Puerto Rico, larger wire traps suitable for catching Rattus spp. (model 201, Tomahawk Live Trap, Hazlehurst, WI, USA). Box traps are arrayed in three to eight (depending on the size of the site) 10 x 10 grids with 10m spacing between traps at all sites. Where used, wire traps are used only in alternate bouts of trapping and placed at every other trap station in the 10 x 10 grid, such that a total of 50 wire traps are set. Small mammal trapping bouts are comprised of one or three nights of trapping, depending on whether a grid is designated for pathogen sample collection (3 nights) or not (1 night). A subset of captured small mammals have tissues sampled (ear punch) for DNA analysis. A subset of those tissue samples are sent to the Canadian Centre for DNA Barcoding and the remaining samples are archived in the NEON Biorepository at -80 degrees Celsius. Ear punches are collected once per life of an individual. See related links below for protocols and NEON related data products.